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The R-Boats
Page 1 (R-1 thru R-13) | Page 2 (R-14 thru R-27)



USS R-14
USS R-14 SS 91
USS R-14 SS 91 with the diamond marking.
This shot of the R-14 shows the gun placement. The R-14 is famous for an incident off Hawaii. Searching for the the sea-going tug Conestoga in May 1921, the R-14 ran out of fuel southeast of Hawaii. Sails were made by sewing blankets and mattress covers together forming sails. The submarine arrived in Hilo, Hawaii on May 15 after 5 days under sail.
The R-14 was a Fore River Shipbuilding Co, Quincy, MA built boat.

USS R-14 SS 91
USS R-14 SS 91 off Pearl Harbor circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 in dry dock
USS R-14 SS bow in dry dock circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 in dry dock
USS R-14 in dry dock, Pearl Harbor circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 in dry dock
USS R-14 in dry dock, Pearl Harbor circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 in dry dock
USS R-14 in dry dock, Pearl Harbor circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 in dry dock
USS R-14 in dry dock, Pearl Harbor circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 torpedo tubes
USS R-14 torpedo tubes circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 torpedo tubes
USS R-14 torpedo tubes close up circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 fed trim floods
USS R-14 close up of the Port & Stbd Trim Tank Flood Valves. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 control room bow & stern planes
USS R-14 control room bow & stern planes circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 control room trim manifold
USS R-14 control room.
The notation says switch board but it looks more like the trim manifold to me.
circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 control room air manifold
USS R-14 control room air manifold circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 control room air manifold
USS R-14 control room close up of the air manifold circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 control room air manifold
USS R-14 control room close up of the air manifold. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 crew member Ray Suess
USS R-14 crew member Ray Suess. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 crew member Ray Suess
USS R-14 crew member Ray Suess and other crewmen on pier. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 gun crew pose for the camera at sea
USS R-14 gun crew pose for the camera at sea. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 gun crew pose for the camera at sea
USS R-14 gun crew pose for the camera at sea. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 gun crew pose for the camera at sea
USS R-14 gun crew pose for the camera at sea. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 crew members Dorsy & Bridges on the pier
USS R-14 crew members John J. Dorsey GM1c & Winfield E. Bridges GM1c on the pier doing laundry. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

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USS R-14 crew member Valoris E. Field, EM2c, poses with the 3"/50 caliber deck gun. Valoris E. Field's hometown was Minneapolis, Minnesota. He had re-enlisted for another 4 years in the Navy on February 27, 1919, how long he has been in the Navy at this point is also unknown but may have been on submarines during WW I. Though the photo shows his name written as Fields the log book records him several times as Field in the offical muster lists and in the daily log entries.

Field was not aboard the R-14 for her famous "sailing" adventure being in the base hospital with an undisclosed medical problem. He returned to the R-14 two days after they returned to Pearl Harbor.

The R-14 log book shows that the R-14 had left Pearl Harbor between noon and 4 PM on May 24th, 1921 to fire torpedoes. In fact, we even know which torpedoes were used. Two 18 inch diameter, 1,588 lbs, MK 7 torpedoes, numbers #5554 and #5555, were fired successfully at undisclosed targets. This was Field's first time at sea after his stay in the hospital.

The R-14 returned to Pearl Harbor from her firing exrecise and moored along side the USS R-19 seen in the photo on the left, which, is moored to yet another submarine to its left. A small part of that hull can be seen over the deck of the R-19 to the left of Field's right wrist. This photo could very well have been taken on May 24th, though by the shadows on the deck, puts the time of day closer to noon local time and there seems to be no activity for getting underway, so it may have been taken on the 25th or later.

Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 crew member Sulivan posing on the deck
USS R-14 crew member Patrick J. Sullivan F1c posing on the deck. circa March 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 crew member Chief Petty Officer Woodworth
USS R-14 crew member Chief Petty Officer Harry E. Woodworth CTM
standing on the foredeck near the deck gun. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 crewman working on bow planes
USS USS R-14 crewman working on bow planes. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 crewman working on bow planes
USS USS R-14 crewman working on bow planes. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 crewman working on bow planes
USS USS R-14 crewman working on bow planes. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

Looking forward from the bridge of the USS R-14 at sea
Looking forward from the bridge of the USS R-14 at sea. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 electric motor controllers
USS USS R-14 electric motor controllers. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 electric motor controllers
USS USS R-14 electric motor controllers. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 electric motor controllers
USS USS R-14 electric motor controllers. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 electric motor controllers
USS USS R-14 electric motor controllers.
It looks like the panal was manufactured by "The Cutler Manufacturing Co, Millwaukee, WS, USA". circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 regulator pump
USS USS R-14 "regulator pump".
This looks like another shot of the Trim Manifold.
circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 regulator pump
USS USS R-14 "regulator pump". Close up.
This looks like another shot of the Trim Manifold.
circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 regulator pump
USS USS R-14 "regulator pump". Close up.
This looks like another shot of the Trim Manifold.
circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 signal flag storage
USS USS R-14 signal flag storage behind the Trim Manifold. circa 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 under sail
USS USS R-14 This is the famous photo of the submarine under sail.
The man in the foreground is Seaman 1/class Raymond R. Suess from Minnieapolis, MN.
On the bridge to the left and hatless is Lt. Alexander Douglas, acting CO of the R-14.
This image is made from one of the few remaining original photos of the event.
May 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 under sail
USS USS R-14 This is a close up of the famous photo of the submarine under sail.
On the bridge to the left and hatless is Lt. Alexander Douglas, acting CO of the R-14.
This image is made from one of the few remaining original photos of the event.
May 1921..
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 under sail
USS USS R-14 This is a close up of the famous photo of the submarine under sail.
This image is made from one of the few remaining original photos of the event.
May 1921..
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 acting CO Alexander Douglas
On the bridge of the R-14 is the hatless Lt. Alexander Douglas, acting CO of the R-14.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 under sail
USS USS R-14 This is a close up of Ray Suess in the famous photo of the submarine under sail.
This image is made from one of the few remaining original photos of the event. May 1921.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

Looking aft from the deck of the USS R-14 at sea
Looking aft from the deck of the USS R-14 at sea. Photo most like likely taken May 16 or 17, 1921 enroute to Pearl Harbor from Hilo Hawaii.
The sub behind is the USS R-12 which had brought fuel to Hilo Harbor so the R-14 could return to Pearl Harbor after having run out of fuel and having to invent sails to rescue herself.
Photo courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Sues now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

Actual size of photo
This is the actual size of the original photo of the R-14 sailing to Hilo, Hawaii.
Photo in the private collection of Ric Hedman
All photos attributed to Robert and Ray Suess are now in the privare collection of Ric Hedman

Crew muster for the USS R-14 March 31, 1921
Lt. Vincent Arthur Clarke jr Captain / Commissioning CO
Lt. Clifford Harris Roper Captain / Assumed Command May 26,1921 from Clarke
Lt. Alexander Dean Douglas Executive Officer
Lt. Roy Trent Gallemore Third Officer
Leland C. Black Sea2c
Winfield E. Bridges GM1c
Jake Brooks Sea2c
William S. Clay SC1c
David W. Camron F1c
Ferdinand Caron Sea On board for training for transfer to "S" boat
Jesse L. Clendenny F3c
Titus J. Debely F3c On board for training for transfer to "S" boat
John W. Dew QM2c
John J. Dorsey GM1c
George E. Dunham F1c
Roy P. Emerline Eng1c
Valoris E. Field E2c (G)
Percy J. Foren E3c (G)
Wallace J. Graham CMM
Herman L. Herron F3c On board for training for transfer to "S" boat
Joseph H. Hearne CE (G)
Walter D. Kaessner MM1c
Edwin H. Kath F3c On board for training for transfer to "S" boat
Ollie F. Kent F2c On board for training for transfer to "S" boat
Leo P. Kruszkowski Sea
Richard Ladd F2c On board for training for transfer to "S" boat
Hansell H. LaFoy E3c
William McGlencey GM1c (G)
Hugh McNamara MM1c
Christain A. Melton F3c On board for training for transfer to "S" boat
Willie K. Riggs F1c
Revie O. Robinson F3c
Albert Ross F2c
Joseph S. Ruchas GM2c (G)
James C. Russell Sea
Albert Skreypczak Sea2c
William A. Stakley E3c (G)
Raymond R. Suess Sea
Patrick J. Sullivan F2c
Lorenzo Verano MAtt2c
Raymond W. Waldron E1c ( R )
Sidney W. Wilde CGM(T)
Henry D. Wilkinson Sea
Dennis P. Wrenn MM1c

USS R-14 under sail news paper article
USS R-14 under sail news paper article
This is a newspaper article about the USS USS R-14 experience.
Unfortuately the owner laminated the clipping after it was scotch taped
and caused some damage to the second part where it described making the sails.
Article courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Suess now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

Another newpaper article

SUBMARINE 5 DAYS DISABLED REACHES HILO

With Fuel Exhausted Diver Rigged Sails From Mattresses and Canvas.


Rigged out with jurymasts built of steel bunk rods and(missing text) sails made out of Mattre (missing text) and canvas hammocks (missing text) Submarine (missing text) arrived at Hilo yesterday afternoon out of oil but still with electrical power in her storage batteries. As a cross between a three masted windjammer and an undersea boat she made a weird appearance.

The R-14 was one of a flotilla of submarines sent out to search for the missing navy tug Conestoga, long overdue here from San Diego and virually given up for lost. In turn she herself has been on the missing list for the last five days.

Reserve Tanks Empty

On the night of May 10 in lat. 18 north, logitude 153.33 her fuel oil gave out it was found out that the reserve tanks when called on were empty. Lieut. A. D. Douglas, in command, sent out a general wireless call, which Rear Admiral Shoemaker, commandant of the Pearl Harbor Naval station, said today had been received by the R-12 and relayed to Pearl Harbor. But no answer was ever recieved by the R-14. Lieutenant Douglas today told the Star-Bulletin's correspondent at Hilo that he was unable to account forthe reserve fuel tank being empty and could not understand why his call for help had not been answered. The sub carried 10,000 gallons of fuel when she left Pearl Harbor.

Not knowing whether his call for help had been heard or not the commander of the helpless submarine rigged two jurymasts and with thtier aid and that of trhe wireless mast managed to spread enough canvas to make headway toward land. On the slow voyage to Hilo he sighted the Matson liner Enterprise and mistook her for a SHIPOP bringing succor, but no other vessels were seen.

Food Supply Low


Within five miles of Hilo the storage batteries were switched on and the R-14 rounded the breakwater and came into port on her own power. She had left only suficient rice and bully beef to last her crew of 27 men and two officers four days more.

This morning the R-12 also arrived at Hilo to give the R-14 fuel. Informed by the Star-Bulletin this morning that the R-14 was at Hilo, Rear Adimeral Shoemaker said he had been expecting news of her arrival there at any moment. No anxiety had been felt, he said, because from her reported position it was evident that she would have enough power left in her storage batteries to make Hilo. The power he supposed, had been held in reserve in case the vessel got into difficulties on a lee shore and needed it to work into safe water again. Why the reserve tank was empty he did not know.

Article courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Suess now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-14 under sail news paper article
The above newspaper article about the R-14.
Article courtesy of Robert Suess son of Ray Suess now in the private Collection of Ric Hedman

USS R-15
USS R-15 SS 92 under construction Union Iron Works, san Francisco, CA
USS R-15 SS 92 under construction Union Iron Works, San Francisco, CA

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USS R-15 crew portrait. The location could be San Pedro or San Francisco, Calif circa July 1918. The submarine looks to be almost unused and the paint fresh. This could be a commissioning photo. That would make one of the two Lieutenants seen on the deck, Lt. Thales S. Boyd, the commanding officer. By count there are 36 crew members on deck. Three Officers, six Chiefs and twenty seven Enlisted. The class was designed with two Officers and twenty seven Chiefs/Enlisted as ships company. So, she was over complimented by nine.

At the bow stands a lone man. It is hard to make a good judgment based on this photo on who this might be but the man looks faintly to be oriental and may be the officers Mess Attendant. Or, maybe, just a visitor to the sub and was standing out of the way of the photo.

Photo courtesy of The US Navy Submarine Force Museum


R-15 Crew Photos
USS R-15 crew portrait.

Photo courtesy of The US Navy Submarine Force Museum


R-15 Crew Photos
USS R-15 crew portrait.
One of the two Officers maybe Lt. Thales S. Boyd, the commanding officer

Photo courtesy of The US Navy Submarine Force Museum


R-15 Crew Photos
USS R-15 crew portrait.

Photo courtesy of The US Navy Submarine Force Museum


R-15 Crew Photos
USS R-15 crew portrait.

Photo courtesy of The US Navy Submarine Force Museum


R-15 Crew Photos

USS R-15 crew portrait. During this time frame many different races were employed as Mess Attendants. Chinese, Japanese, Guamanians, Blacks and even a few Hawaiians and Puerto Ricans as well as Whites. Or, maybe, just a visitor to the sub and he was standing out of the way of the photo.

Photo courtesy of The US Navy Submarine Force Museum


R-15 Crew Photos
Sailors on the pier observing the picture taking. Most likely from other submarines.

Photo courtesy of The US Navy Submarine Force Museum


R-15 at Pearl Harbor Circa 1923
R-15 transiting at Pearl Harbor Circa 1923

R-15 at Pearl Harbor Circa 1923
R-15 transiting at Pearl Harbor Circa 1923

R-15 at Pearl Harbor Circa 1923
R-15 transiting at Pearl Harbor Circa 1923

R-15 moored alongside unidentified vessel Pearl Harbor Circa 1923
R-15 moored alongside unidentified vessel Pearl Harbor Circa 1923

R-15 moored alongside unidentified vessel Pearl Harbor Circa 1923
R-15 moored alongside unidentified vessel Pearl Harbor Circa 1923

R-15 (L) and R-17 (R) moored pierside Pearl Harbor Circa 1923
R-15 (L) and R-17 (R) moored pierside Pearl Harbor Circa 1923

R-15 ships bell September 2006
The USS R-15 ships bell. Photo taken September 2006

R-15 ships bell September 2006
The USS R-15 ships bell. Photo taken September 2006

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The USS R-15 seen in the Panama Canal. The date is most likely Late December 1930 on her trip from Hawaii to Philadelphia for decommissioning.

She is backing away from either a pier or maybe a tender. The exact location is in some doubt but the area seems to fit the Rio Chagres vicinity with the rail lines in the background and pairs of power poles as a clue.

Photo in the collection of Ric Hedman


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Close up of crew activity. The big white square was the visual marker assigned to the R-15 while she was stationed out of Pearl Harbor. Aft of the conning tower fairwater are three coils of lines no doubt to be used as lock lines. There, also, appears to be some sort of fairing placed around the Engine Room hatch. A crew man is seen sitting on its edge with feet braced on the wire lifelines.

Photo in the collection of Ric Hedman


USS R-16
R-16 under construction
The USS R-16 under construction at the Bethleham Ship Building, San Francisco, CA January 3, 1918
Photo courtesy of The US Navy Submarine Force Museum

R-16 stern planes while under construction
The USS R-16 stern planes while under construction at the Bethleham Ship Building, San Francisco, CA January 3, 1918
Photo courtesy of The US Navy Submarine Force Museum

R-16 crew photo
The USS R-16 crew photo

US Navy Photo

USS R-16 Crew Close-Ups

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USS R-16 Interior Photos

A large number of Interior Photos of an "R-Class" submarine were discovered at the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum by Submarine Researcher Darryl Baker. He kindly took the time to scan the images and send them on to PigBoats.COM for posting.

During the time taken to study the images to figure out what was going on and from where in the Submarine the photos were taken the name of the Submarine was reveled; USS R-16. The R-16 was an R-11 variant of the R-1 design by Electric Boat Corporation in Groton Connecticut but built by the Union Iron Works in San Francisco, California.

We have worked at bringing out as much detail of the images as possible and in a number occasions even make close-ups of interesting bits of information. The photos are reportedly to have been taken in 1923.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker

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The R-16 Torpedo Tube Doors. You can see that the hull narrows quite a lot at this point by the curvature of the hull frames. It can be noticed that the hull at this point is not a true circle but a vertical ellipse .

Each door has a sea pressure gauge and sight glass except for door on Number One torpedo tube. The sight glass may have been damaged and has yet to be replaced. The tubes are numbered from Right to Left and Top to Bottom; 1, 2 and 3, 4. Odd numbers on the Starboard side and even on the Port side.

The row of large wheel handles are for opening and closing the shutter doors on the outside of the bow. They are inter linked with the torpedo tube muzzle door that close off the seaward end of the torpedo tube.

The black squares in the corners are from the tabs that glued the photo into the original scrapbook.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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This view in the R-16 is taken in the Forward Battery Compartment of the Submarine. This is just behind or aft of the Torpedo Room. This view is looking aft to the door into the Control Room. Lockers on the left are for the crew to put uniforms and personal items. The dark colored caged area houses the ships Gyro Compass.

The Forward Battery Compartment housed both Enlisted Crew as well as the Subs three Officers. The Starboard side, seen here is where bunks and lockers for Enlisted. The Port side, blocked off by a Canvas curtain is where the Officers had their quarters. On the right edge of the photo can be seen the end of a table with cloth over it. This table acted as a desk and eating surface for the officers.

Under the deck was one half of the ships massive storage battery. It contained 60 cells. The battery well was covered by wood planking and bolted down and then heavy canvas was shellacked down over the planks to make it water tight. Shellac gave the decks their dark green color.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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This photo shows the Officers side of the Forward Battery Compartment. The rest of the table/desk can be seen with books and note books on it. Over the table hangs a portable light that could be unplugged and stored away while at sea so it wouldn't be damaged.

Two of the Officers bunks are seen on the right of the photo. There are storage lockers under the bunks. Not seen are larger cupboards and lockers for officers use. The purpose of the six canisters against the bulkhead are unknown. They could hold Soda Lime to absorb CO2 in an emergency though the containers seem a bit small for that purpose.

Battery Well ventilation blowers are seen against the bulkhead along with piping to the battery well. Used to exhaust battery gases during charging to prevent explosions.

The dark shaft seen to the left of top center, next to the valve handle, is the drive shaft for operating the bow planes

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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It seems the purpose of this photo is to show the Sea Water Depth Gauge over the Captains bunk.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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The gauge seems to have a dual purpose. It gives readings in Sea Water in feet and Pressure in Pounds per Square Inch

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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In the Control Room of the USS R-16. On the forward bulkhead just to port of the ship helm, seen at upper right, was the air gauge array. These gave pressures in various banks and tanks and systems.

The surrounding gauges seems to be for monitoring the various air pressure systems; 60#, 100#, 200#, 300#. Hinted at but no photo taken, at the left top is another gauge which is possibly part of a series of gauges for the different air banks

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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In this close up the top row of dials shows, left to right; a gauge marked "Air Flask". The center is a barometer. On the right is a gauge marked "Air Manifold".

The center row, left to right the dials say: "Aft Trim Tank"; Sea Pressure" and "Fwd Trim Tank".

The bottom row of dials say; "Regulator"; "Auxiliary Tank"; "Aft Main Ballast" and "Fwd Main Ballast".

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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This manifold handles the blow for the "Auxiliary Tank" on the left, "Forward Trim" in the center and "After Trim" on the right. Printed in paint written above the label plate someone has painted the word "BLOW" probably to avoid confusion on which handles to turn.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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Moving left around the compartment. The Dive Station of the USS R-16. The station is on the Port side of the Control Room. That makes the bow of the Submarine to the Right in the photo. The wheel on the right is for the Bow Planes and the one on the left is for the Stern Planes.

The Depth gauges only show 100 feet though the submarines had a test depth of 200 feet. Many Skippers complained about having no way of knowing how deep they were after the first 100 feet. Finally the Navy relented and made deeper gauges available.

Above the Stern Planes wheel is a speaking tube though where it came from or went isn't known at this time.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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Continuing on our swing to the left around the Control Room of the R-16 we come to the Main Motor Field Rheostats, seen at the top of the photo, and the Engine Order Telegraphs, center and the Motor Controller Hands on the bottom.

This arrangement sits on the forward side of the bulkhead that enclosed the Radio Room. The view is looking aft. Between the Engine Order Telegraphs is a bell and on either side of that are small signs that say "PORT" and "STAR". Since the operator is facing aft the controls would be backwards so board is set up as if the operator was facing the other direction. This whole arrangement was later to be moved aft of the Engine Room and become what is later to be known as the Maneuvering Room.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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Stepping around the corner from the Motor Controllers you are looking to Port and into the door of the Radio Room. It is a pretty small space maybe four feet by four feet in size.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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Another view into the Radio Room showing a bit more detail of the Transmitter/Receiver.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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From this view the photographer is standing almost in the center of the Control Room looking directly aft. On the right is the ladder that leads up into the Bridge Access Trunk. Behind that is the #2 Periscope. The #1 Periscope was only usable from the Conning Tower Trunk, out of the picture to the right and above. There is a third Periscope located in the After Battery Compartment.

The two large boxes on the bulkhead can also be seen in the photo showing the Motor Controllers. The man standing at a small desk is E. R. Brown Radio Electricians Mate 3/class and would have worked in the Radio Room. He would have also needed to know how to send Morse Code via Blinker Light and send and read semaphore using hand flags, combining the jobs of Radioman and Signalman into one job on a submarine. The USS R-16 was stationed at Pearl Harbor for 11 years. These subs had no air conditioning and were hot below decks hence the reason for the casual dress seen in this photo.

To the left in the photo are seen the levers for operating the Kingston Valves that are used for diving or surfacing.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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Rounding on to the Starboard side of the submarine we come to the Kingston Levers. These are used to open and shut large valves in the bottoms of various tanks to let water in or out as needed.

The large sight gauges seen to the right and left of the Kingston Levers are, on the Right, for the Auxiliary Tanks (there were two of these) and the one on the Left is for the Regulator Tank. (This tank is to change its name in the future and become the Negative Tank. All were used to adjust Trim and Weight.)

The large tube in the upper left corner and extending over the top of the first three levers is the barrel for the ships Lewis Light Machine Gun that would be mounted on the bridge if needed.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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The name plates on the Levers are readable for the most part. Left to Right the first 4 levers are; This one is unreadable. The second from the left is a "Port (something) Main Ballast Kingston"; The third is: "Port For'd Main Ballast Kingston" and the last is; "Stbd For'd Main Kingston".

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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The last 4 Kingston Levers are easier to read. Left to Right they are; "Regulator Tank Kingston"; "Auxiliary Tank Kingston"; "Port Aft Main Ballast Kingston" and "Stbd Aft Main Ballast Kingston".

The Regulator Tank handle looks to have some sort of coating to make it feel different. The Auxiliary Tank Kingston handle has been wrapped and then a Turks Head Knot applied to it so it feel different from all the rest and also painted.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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This is the Water Manifold. It performed Trimming and Drain functions. Only a few names can be read on the right side name plate. The far left says; "From Bilge". The next two are unreadable. The fourth reads; "Trim Line Aft". The fifth reads; "From Duct Keel". The last is unreadable.

The large back box with the big wheel is the regulator for the pump for the trimming system.

In the upper right corner of the photo the rest of the Lewis Light Machine Gun can be seen. There were mounts on the bridge where this could be placed if it was needed for protection.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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The famous WW I "Lewis Gun". Invented by American Army Colonel Isaac Newton Lewis, he couldn't get the US Military to buy the gun. Lewis resigned his commission and moved his operation to Belgium and also licensed it for manufacture in England when WW I started.

Lewis and family settled in England where he became extremely rich from license agreements for his gun. The English and Empire troops used it with much success all through WW I and WW II. After the war a few were sold to the US, mainly the Navy.

There were two caliber guns. The British .303 and the American .30-06. This being a gun sold to the US Navy it was most likely the .30-06 caliber. Lewis Guns were used up through the Korean War. In 1925 the US Navy had 6,711 Lewis Guns on hand in armories and shipboard. Out numbering the Browning .30 caliber and Browning .50 caliber Machine Guns 6 to 1!

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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Stepping through the door into the After Battery Compartment and turning back to the door for a peek back into Control. On the left can be seen the third Periscope. To the right is the Main Electrical Switch Board.

The periscope is an early Kollmorgen design. This periscope was removed from the R-Boats in 1924. It was 18 feet 10 1/2 inches in length and 6 inches in diameter. It had an 8 degree field of view at 6 power. At low power (1.25 power) it gave a 38 degree field of view.

Submarine Historian Dave Johnston provided this information: "During construction of the R-boats, a desire arose to have a third periscope. Cramming a third scope into the conning tower trunk or into the control room was just not going to work as there wasn't enough room. The existing two scopes were also fairly short and there was a desire to have a longer periscope which gave the advantage of a greater height of eye, and thus a longer visual range. The designers at Electric Boat proposed a scheme to convert an existing access trunk and hatch, used to gain access to the aft deck from the after battery compartment, into a makeshift second conning tower. The hatch at the top would be blanked off and an 18 foot periscope would be added. When fully raised the eyepiece of the scope would be at the top of the trunk, allowing the top of the scope to be considerably higher than the other two. To give the user of the periscope someplace to stand while using it, a platform was attached to the bottom of the scope by a cable, which pulled the platform up with a the scope while it was being raised. Two metal guide rods on each side of the platform kept it straight while raised and provided an additional point to secure the platform.

The designers at the USN Bureau of Construction and Repair agreed with Electric Boat and wanted the third scope installed, but Electric Boat pointed out the because the boats were already under construction making a major change like this would cause a delay in delivery of the boats. Being wartime a delay was not acceptable, so the conversion happened after the boats were delivered to the Navy and commissioned. Ultimately, the third periscope turned out to be not successful, as it tended to vibrate while being used, restricting the boat to a slow speed while it was raised. By the late 1920's the R-boats had standardized on two 27 foot periscopes and presumably the third scope in the after battery was removed and the trunk re-converted to a topside access trunk."

The curving structure under the Electrical Panel is the After Starboard Main Ballast Tank.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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Amp Hour Meters for the Forward and After Batteries. The switches below are covered with a heavy cloth or leather to protect them from condensation or spray. The covering also protected the men from falling into the open switches and being electrocuted.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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A different view of the Main Switch Board showing the Main Switches that had been covered in the above photo.

Submarine Historian Jim Christley has this to say about this Electrical Panel Set Up: "Starting from the top left. On the horizontal bracket. The rectangular item with 66 spots is most probably the Individual Cell Voltage plug board for one of the two batteries. There would be another plug board on the other side of the meter. There were 60 cells per battery so the plug board had some spare plugins as well as one for each end cell terminal.

To the right the two sets of light bulbs were simply an indication of the state of charge of the battery. Brighter meant higher voltage thus higher charge and lower amperage draw. Kind of a quick visual indicator. Between the sets of bulbs are two rectangular boxes with a kind of meter. These most likely are 'amp-hour' meters. They give a numerical reading of the amount of ampere hours charged into and discharged from the battery. If a particular battery had a rating of 4000 amp hours for instance it could output 4000 amps for one hour or 400 amps for 10 hours or 40 amps for 100 hours. Amperes times hours equal amp hours. Thus if the boat is running submerged at the one hour rate of 4000 amps to the motors, the amp hour meter would give an indication of how much battery capacity remained. The other option was to record the specific gravity of the electrolyte which was slower and not as accurate.

Below these are an interesting set of motor operated main power contactors. The old timers when I was first on diesel boats remarked on these. I don't remember exactly what was said but it was not, as I recall, praising their operation. Note that the electrical connections are not enclosed in any way. Not fun in a hot humid or wet situation. Plus finding a place to lean upon with the boat pitching an rolling was an interesting proposition. It was not until the early 1950's that the distribution switch gear became completely enclosed. Above the motor is a set of motor starting flat plate resisitors."

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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This view showing the after Port corner of the After Battery Compartment shows the Galley Stove and Sink area. On the bulkhead is the ships "Watch, Quarter and Station Bill" and also shows the Submarines name, R-16.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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The WQS bill displays in one place a sailors duties for each emergency and watch condition. It also shows his administrative and operational duties. A Velvet Pipe tobacco can sits on a ledge.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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A number of things are sitting on the Galley Range. What looks like a small Coffee pot, a Toaster and one more indistinct item.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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We've moved one compartment aft to the Engine Room. The man at the right is E. R. Brown Radio Electricians Mate 3/class. He was seen before in the Control Room Photograph.

Seen in the foreground are the Engine Order Telegraphs above the throttle Wheels on the front of the Diesels.

The photo was taken looking aft and through the door to the Motor Room

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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This is a view of the front of the Starboard Diesel Engine showing the instrument cluster, the Engine Order Telegraph and throttle .

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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Another view looking down the Engine Room between the engines. A little better view into the Motor Room. Just beyond the lower right corner of the door you can see the top of the Low Pressure Ballast Pump.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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This view is looking at the after end of the Port diesel engine looking forward.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


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The Motor Room. The deck seems to have been removed, possibly for maintenance work. In the foreground, to the right is the Low Pressure Ballast Pump.A ventilation duct runs down the center of the overhead and just aft of the matching curved pipes, on either side of the room are the shaft driven Air Compressors. The large electric motor just to the left of center is believed to be for the High Pressure Ballast Pump. A few pieces of the equipment seen farther aft could be the ship lathe and drill press but detail is lacking to make positive determinations.

The room appears to be a bit dirty. Perhaps due to to the maintenance work going on. Compared to the appearance of the rest of the submarine this space is pretty messy so this appearance is probably not normal.

Photo in the collection of the Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum
Contributed by Darryl Baker


USS R-17
USS R-17 underway
USS R-17 underway. Color tinted photo.
National Archives Photo

USS R-17 under construction
USS R-17 under construction. About 5 weeks before commissioning.
Union Ship Building, San Francisco, Ca.
National Archives Photo

USS R-17 underway
USS R-17 underway.
National Archives Photo

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USS R-17 at sea in very rough weather. The sub looks to be diving but men can be seen on the bridge. The sub just happens to be in trough between waves to make it look that way. The Triangle painted on the conning tower superstructure has identified this as the R-17. Location most likely off Hawaii circa; early 1920's

Photo in the collection of Ric Hedman


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USS R-17 at sea in very rough weather. The sub looks to be diving but men can be seen on the bridge. The sub just happens to be in trough between waves to make it look that way. A man can be seen standing on the bridge. The Triangle painted on the conning tower superstructure has identified this as the R-17. Location most likely off Hawaii circa; early 1920's

Photo in the collection of Ric Hedman


5 sailors aboard the R-17

Photo of 5 sailors aboard the R-17. The date and location is unknown. Triangle on conning tower, seen above the head of the man in front, has helped identify this photo. The man standing on deck is wearing sandals.

Photo in the collection of Ric Hedman


USS R-17 diving off the Hawaii
USS R-17 diving off Hawaii. Circa 1925.
National Archives Photo

USS R-17 underway with an Admiral aboard
USS R-17 underway with an Admiral aboard. His flag is flying from the bridge.
National Archives Photo

USS R-17 receiving a civilian dignitary. USS R-16 moored outboard.
USS R-17 receiving a civilian dignitary.
This could possibly be Secretary of the Navy Denby who visited Pearl harbor in 1922.
USS R-16 moored outboard.
National Archives Photo

USS R-17
USS R-17 crewman having photo taken. The man is a third class Petty Officer.
USS R-18 moored inboard.
National Archives Photo

USS R-17 & USS R-18
USS R-17 & USS R-18 moored to dock..
National Archives Photo

r-17 view looking aft
R 17, the view is looking aft from the bow.
Deck hatch is open to the free flood superstructure.
A sailor can be seen on the dock talking to another sailor in the shade beside the conning tower.


R 17, view looking aft
Close up of conning tower of R 17.
Sailor on the dock talking to sailor in the shade beside the conning tower.

R-17 hatch looking aft

R-17 looking foreward
R-17. Photo shot from the aft deck looking foreward. Circa 1925

After hatch close-up
Close-up of the after hatch dogging mechanism. You can see the lanyard
for pulling the hatch closed from below and the cross bar dogging latch.
Circa 1925.

R-class subs moored at Pearl Harbor
R-class subs moored at Pearl Harbor.
L to R: R-18, R-16, R-20, R-17, R-15 and R-19.

Circa early 1920's.

R-class subs moored at Pearl Harbor
R-class subs moored at Pearl Harbor.
L to R: R-18, R-16 and R-20.

Circa early 1920's.

R-class subs moored at Pearl Harbor
R-class subs moored at Pearl Harbor.
L to R: R-17, R-15 and R-19.

Circa early 1920's.

Pearl harbor Sub Base
Pearl Harbor submarine base.
This is before the arrival of the former cruiser Chicago to be used for a barracks ship.

Circa early 1920's.

USS R-18
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The USS R-18 seen here circa mid 1920's at Pearl Harbor. She is making some sort of test dive or submergence test of the forward section of the submarine. On the Bridge can be seen an Officer or maybe a Chief Petty Officer observing what is happening. There is a crewman standing on the back deck, perhaps to tend lines to the dock and other submarine.

The submarine along side to the left in the photo is the USS R-12. That is known from the "X" marking on the side of the fairwater.

Original Photo in the collection of Ric Hedman


USS R-19
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The USS R-19 crew photographed at Pearl Harbor in 1921. The officer on the left is Lt. Roy Kehlor Jones, captain of the R-19. Jones was to later loose his life while captain of the USS S-4 when she was fatally rammed and sunk with all hands on December 17, 1927.

The submarine that the R-19 is moored to is the USS R-12. The R-19 was stationed at Pearl Harbor from June of 1919 until December of 1930 when she left to go to Philadelphia for decommissioning. The R-12 arrived at Pearl Harbor in September 1920 and left with the R-19 for the trip to the east coast but was not decommissioned until September 27, 1932.

Original Photo in the collection of Ric Hedman


USS R-20
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The USS R-20 and the USS R-16, to the right in the background, with the circle on her conning tower fairwater. Location most likely off Hawaii circa; early 1920's. The photo was taken from the deck of the USS R-14.

Photo in the collection of Ric Hedman


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The USS R-20 operating, most likely, off the Territory of Hawaii circa 1920's time frame. The R-20 was in Hawaiian waters from June 25, 1919 until her departure for inactivationat at Philadelphia on December12, 1930 via the Panama Canal.

Photo in the collection of Ric Hedman


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A close-up of the USS R-20 from the above photo. Note shirtless crew members on the left in the photo. These boats had no air conditioning and were very hot inside in tropical climates.

Photo in the collection of Ric Hedman


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USS R-20 at Pearl Harbor some time 1924 or after. The time frame is based on the presence of the USS Seagull, (behind the R-20), which arrived in June 1922 when she was ordered to serve as submarine tender at Pearl Harbor. The other surface craft is thought to be the USS Widgeon ASR-1 which arrived in Pearl sometime after Novermber 21, 1923 when she was ordered there from Charleston, SC after her conversion to and testing as a Submarine Rescue Vessel.

US Navy Photo


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A close-up of the crew on deck of USS R-20 at Pearl Harbor from the above photo. You can see the anchor and part of the "0" of the number "30" on the bow of the USS Seagull AM-30.

US Navy Photo


A bit of life aboard the USS R-20 during WW II.

Since it has been a couple of days since I served on the R 20 I wasn't sure I could remember too much to tell you but after reading Guy's, (Guy Covert, EMC(SS), USS R-7, see above), comments lots of it sorta flooded back. 

Like Guy, I didn't really care for a riveted submarine but when your only 18 who knows. If it made it thru one war it ought to make another. Till the day the 12 boat went down. (USS R-12 was lost on 12-Jun-1943 with the loss of 42 officers and men when it foundered off Key West). We operated out of Key West mostly training fly boys in detection and also working with destroyers. Hind sight tells me we put lots of those boys in bad positions because we could only dive to 90 feet and when they got into real action they had a bit of trouble with subs at over 200'. 

I came from Diesel school at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Mo. to New London for sub school and then to Key West to the R 20 as an MOMM2/c (Motor Machinist Mate second class) (no EN (Enginemen) in those days). Quite a change from a classroom with lots of space around the engines to a sardine can where when you oiled the valve push rods , which were on the outboard side of the engines, the sweat that was pouring off you evaporated totally on the side of your body next to the engine and ran like a river on the other side. And the exhaust manifolds, which were also on the outboard side would sear your flesh if you fell against them when the ship rolled in a storm. I carried the scars for many years. 

I fully understand Guy's feeling when the ship rolls so far that you ship water down the conning tower hatch and with the engines on line they pull a vacuum thru out the whole boat and really do a job on your ears. I know well the feeling when you can't dive over 90' and in a storm that is worse than on the surface so you stay on the surface. 
That is about the time one gets a distinct longing for the open ranges of Montana where the antelope roam! 

The one really nice thing about serving on the R20 was that you could go up into the conning tower when submerged and look out thru the glass port holes and watch all the critters swimming along with you. And also the crew was one of the guttiest and bravest I have ever know and I'm honored to have served with them. 

I left the 20 boat to put the Angler, SS 240, into commission and stayed with her for 5 patrol runs until 1945. Left the service in 1948 and went home to Montana to be a cowboy! 

Hope this helps a little! 

John Clarke EN 1/c


USS R-21
R-boats
The ex-USS R-25, R-21, R-22, R-27, R-23, R-24 & R-26 all moored together at Hampton Roads, VA circa 1930.
Closer boats in photo seem to be a mix of classes but no identification can be found.
From the Private Collection of Ric Hedman
R-21 bow
The bow of the R-21 can be seen here.
She was in dry dock with two other R-boats, one of which was the R-25.

Circa early 1920's. Location Unknown.

USS R-22
USS R-22 in dry dock
USS R-22 in dry dock
Milne Special Collections, University of New Hampshire Library, Durham, N.H.

R-22 dockside

USS R-22 dockside showing her bow buoyancy conversion bow. The date is reported to have been July 29, 1922. The R-22 was the second R-boat constructed by the Lake Torpedo Boat company. His concerns over reserve buoyancy caused him to modify his design with the addition of a large Bow Buoyancy Tank. During 1921, R-22 was transferred back to the Connecticut Submarine Base from Coco Solo, Panama for duty with SubDiv 0 an experimental division of submarines. It was at this time the buoyancy tank was added.

US Navy Photo


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Lieutenant James Joseph Hughes photographed standing in front of the USS R-22 at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard on or about July 29, 1922. It can be seen the view is about the same as the one above. Hughes reason for being there hasn't been discovered at this point but he was to assume command of the USS O-9 in about two months from the time this photo being taken.

Hughes was to have a number of Submarine Commands over the years. The USS O-9 SS-070, the USS O-13 SS-074, the USS O-7 SS-068, the USS R-18 SS-095.

His most notable command was a Surface Command, the River Gunboat USS PANAY PR-05 that was sunk by bombing by the Japanese while on the Yangtze River in 1937. The bomb blew him off the bridge and broke his hip, for which he was awarded Purple Heart. As the boat sank the crew made it to shore and hid in the reeds until rescue.

His final command was the cargo ship USS ELECTRA AK-21 which was torpedoed by the Germans but survived and his efforts to save the ship resulted in him being awarded the the Navy Commendation Medal with a Combat V. He was relieved of command on June 23, 1943 and released from active duty due to medical reasons.

Original Photo in the collection of Ric Hedman
Photo From Hughes Private Scrapbook
Many Thanks To Wolfgang Hechler for the List Of Hughes Commands
Thanks to Ron Reeves for tracking down the USS ELECTRA data.


USS R-22 bow
Lake added this same bow to the USS S-2 over his concerns about reserve buoyancy.

R-22 gun deck
Notice the unusual design of the gun platform area. It is unlike other boats

USS R-23
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The newly built submarine R-23 on builders trials, September 30, 1919. She was photographed by the Lake Torpedo Boat Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut.

You may notice that the 3"/50 caliber deck gun is yet to be installed. But since the submarine was laid down 19 days after the US entered WW I, yet completed after the war, the steel chariot bridge modification has been added.

US Navy Photo


USS R-24
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The USS R-24 is seen here in the Philadelphia Navy Yard on September 22, 1923. She had been there for a shipyard overhaul. There are a number of decommissioned ships moored to the right. The ship painted white with with a red stripe is the hospital Ship USS Solace (AH-2) the ship to her immediate right is the Destroyer USS Mayrant DD 31 and the second ship from the right is the Destroyer USS Drayton (DD-23).

US Navy Photo


USS R-25
R-25 in Dry Dock
The R-25 is seen here in dry dock.
She was in dry dock with two other R-boats, one
of which was the R-21 just to the left in the photo.
An unidentified sub is in the lower right corner of the photo.

Circa early 1920's. Location Unknown.

R-25 bow
A close-up of the bow area of the R-25 can bee seen here.
Crew are gathered around the deckgun.

Circa early 1920's. Location Unknown.

R-25 Gun
The gun area of the R-25 is seen here.
Crew are gathered around the deckgun.

Circa early 1920's. Location Unknown.

USS R-26
USS R-26 SS 103 under construction
This is the USS R-26 SS 103 under construction at the
Lake Torpedoboat Company yard in Bridgeport CT on July 10, 1919.

National Archives Photo

USS R-26 SS 103 bow detail
This is the USS R-26 SS 103 bow detail while under construction at the
Lake Torpedoboat Company yard in Bridgeport CT on July 10, 1919.

National Archives Photo

USS R-26 SS 103
USS R-26 SS 103. This photo is usually seen with the background and ships
removed and R-26 details hand painted in. This is the un-retouched version.

National Archives Photo

USS R-26 at Coco Solo, Panama 1923
USS R-26 at Coco Solo, Panama 1923 with the O-7 and O-3

USS R-27
USS R-27 pre-launch photo
USS R-27 pre-launch photo, Sept 23, 1918.
Lake Torpedo Boat Co, Bridgeport, CT.
National Archives Photo

USS R-27 underway
USS R-27 running on the surface.
National Archives Photo

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Grandson Jon Sarubbi relates: "My grandfather, Henry Jappell, severed in the US Navy in the early 1920s. I do not have a complete record of his service. According to the 1920 US Census, he served as a Fireman 1st class aboard the USS R-27 in Panama in 1920." He is identified as the second man from the left.

The photo is taken with the men standing in front of the 4"/50 caliber deck gun. One man seems to have missed getting in the photo as all that is visible of him are his legs, seen to the right side of Henry Jappell.

The odd looking assortment of wood seen attached to the steel deck are cleats used by the men working the gun so their feet don't slip on the slick decking.

Seen in the background between the two men on the left is one of Henry Ford's Eagle Boats. A periscope of another sub is seen behind the men on the right. Photo location is Panama.

Photo Courtesy of Jon Sarubbi whose Grandfather, Henry Jappell, Severed On the R-27


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Henry Jappell is again identified as the second man from the left in this photo. There is a Chief Machinist Mate and to the right of him is a First Class Machinist Mate. The man on the left is a Second Class Machinist Mate. The rest of the men appear to be non-rated strikers. One man is in working clothes. This is possibly the whole Engine Room Gang.

Photo Courtesy of Jon Sarubbi whose Grandfather, Henry Jappell, Served On the R-27


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Henry Jappell is identified as being in the middle in this photo. Five buddies posing for the camera.

Photo Courtesy of Jon Sarubbi whose Grandfather, Henry Jappell, Severed On the R-27


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